ORANGE


Description

It is beneficial for human consumption and its nutritional value is high. It is consumed as fresh fruit or used in the production of juices, fresh or packaged.

Orange is rich in vitamin C. The early varieties ripen their fruits in the month of October while the late during the summer months.

The oranges from the Regional Unit of Arta are especially known because they are delicious and have much juice. Their Latin name is Citrus Aurantium. They ripen in late December and kept in good condition until summer. The cultivation of oranges in Arta began after the 19th century. They are used mainly for juices.

The health benefits of oranges have been associated with a wide variety of phytonutrient compounds including citrus flavanones such as the flavonoids (hesperidin and naringenin), the anthocyanins and the hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as a variety of polyphenols. These compounds in combination with vitamin C provide the significant antioxidant properties of this fruit.

The most important flavanone in oranges is herperidin which is found in the peel and inner white pulp of the orange and has been shown to lower high blood pressure as well as cholesterol in animal studies, and to have strong anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin, a very long-acting limonoid, has been found to help fight cancers of the mouth, skin, lung, breast, stomach and colon.

Consuming foods rich in beta-cryptoxanthin (an orange-red carotenoid), such as oranges, may significantly lower one's risk of developing lung cancer. In studies, current smokers who were in the group consuming the most cryptoxanthin-rich foods were found to have a 37% lower risk of lung cancer compared to smokers who ate the least of these health-protective foods.

Oranges are an excellent source of vitamin C, the primary water-soluble antioxidant in the body, deactivating free radicals and preventing damage in the aqueous environment both inside and outside cells. Inside cells, a potential result of free radical damage to DNA is cancer. Especially in areas of the body where cellular turnover is especially rapid, such as the digestive system, preventing DNA mutations translates into preventing cancer. This is why a good intake of vitamin C is associated with a reduced risk of cancer, especially colon cancer.

Free radical damage to other cellular structures in inflammation, as the body tries to clear out the damaged parts. Vitamin C prevents the free radical damage that triggers the inflammation, thus reducing the severity of inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Free radicals also oxidize cholesterol. It is this oxidized form of cholesterol that sticks to the artery walls, building up in plaques that may eventually grow large enough to impede or fully block blood flow, or rupture to cause a heart attack or stroke. Since vitamin C can neutralize free radicals, it prevents the oxidation of cholesterol.

Vitamin C is also involved in the proper function of a healthy immune system, preventing colds and recurrent ear infections.

Reasearch has shown that the compounds found in citrus fruit peels called polymethoxylated flavones have the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs, and without side effects. The most common such compounds are tangeretin and nobiletin which are found concentrated in the peels of tangerines and oranges and in much smaller amounts in the juice.

Finally, oranges are a very good source of fiber which has has been shown to reduce high cholesterol levels thus helping to prevent atherosclerosis, keep blood sugar levels under control, bind cancer-causing chemicals and keep them away from cells of the colon and help for reducing the uncomfortable constipation or diarrhea. 

Protein  0,94 g   1,88%DRI
Carbohydrates  11,75 g   5,22%DRI
Fat-total  0.12 g
Dietary fiber   2,40 g   9,59%DRI
Calories  47   2,61%DRI
Vitamin C  23.20 mg   70,92%DRI
Fiber  2,40 g   9,62%DRI
Folate  30 mcg   7,48%DRI
Vitamin B1  0,08   7,02%DRI
Potassium  181 mg   5,19%DRI
Copper  0,05 mg   5,11%DRI
Pantothenic acid  0,25 mg   5,04%DRI
Calcium  40 mg   3,97%DRI

Microbiological Analysis
Aerobic Total Plate Count (PCA-agar): 6.3 x 103 cfu/g
Anaerobic Total Plate Count (Brewer’s anaerobic agar): 3.7 x 102 cfu/g
Yeasts and Molds (PDA): 1.5 x 102 cfu/g
Lactic acid bacteria (MRS agar): 6.8 x 101 cfu/g
Gram- , Lactose fermenters (Mc Conkey agar): 1.2 x 102 cfu/g
Gram- , Lactose  non fermenters  (Mc Conkey agar): <101 cfu/g
E. coli (Eosin Methylene blue agar): <101 cfu/g
Micrococcaceae (Mannitol salt agar): 2.5 x 102 cfu/g
S. aureus (Baird-Parker agar): <101 cfu/g
L. monocytogenes (Ottaviani and Agosti Listeria agar): <101 cfu/g
Salmonella (Rappaport-Vassiliadis, Salmonella-Shigella agar, TSI slant): <101 cfu/g